1. Malaria Epidemiological profile
Malaria transmission in Ethiopia mainly occurs up to the 2000 meter (m) elevation but can also occasionally affect areas up to 2300m elevation. The levels of malaria risk and transmission intensity within these geographical ranges, however, show marked seasonal, inter-annual and spatial variability because of large differences in climate (temperature, rainfall and relative humidity), topography (altitude, surface hydrology, land vegetation cover and land use, etc.) and human settlement and population movement patterns.
In most parts of the country, the peak periods of malaria incidence occurs from September to December, following the main rainy seasons (June-September), and from March to May, during and after the small rainy seasons (February-March).
Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax are the two most dominant malaria parasites in Ethiopia. They are prevalent in all malaria endemic areas in the country with P. falciparum representing about 77% (MIS 2011) of the total reported malaria cases. Relative frequency varies in time and space within a given geographical range. P. malariae and P. ovale are rare and account for <1% of all confirmed malaria cases. The major malaria vector incriminated in Ethiopia is Anopheles arabiensis; in some areas A. pharoensis, A. funestus and A. nili also play minor role in transmission of malaria8.
- Population Vs transmission pattern
Map of Malaria Strata in Ethiopia (©2014)
2. Interventions policies and strategies
Long Lasting Insecticidal Net
- ITNs/LLINs distributed free of charge since 2004
- Distribution is to all age groups in malarious areas
Indoor Residual Spraying /IRS/
IRS as vector control intervention have been in place since 1960
- DDT and Deltamethrine have been banned due to resistance since 2009 and 2010 respectively
- Currently using the carbamets
- Larval control is one of the intervention where appropriate
- Patients of all ages when suspected for malaria receive diagnostic test
- Malaria diagnosis is free of charge in the public sector
- RDTs and Microscopes are used as tools for diagnosis
- Anti malaria drugs are free of charge for all in public sector
Health Facility expansion
Figure 2 Expansion of Public Health Facilities, 1999 -2012, Ethiopia
Figure xxx LLINs Household Possessions and Trend of Malaria Prevalence from 1999 to 2013
Note: household coverage for 1992 and 1999 is estimated to be below .2% as the 2000 EDHS showed ITN possession to be .2%. ITN coverage estimate for 2005/2006/2007 is from 2005 EDHS.
Figure xx Outpatient Confirmed Malaria Cases vs. OPD Non-malaria Cases, Ethiopia.