The Crude death rate is estimated to be 7.6 per 1000 population, where as the sub-Saharan (developing) countries found to be 11.1 per 1000 population. Life expectancy at birth of male and female is 62 years and 65 years respectively. The Infant Mortality rate is estimated at 44 per 1000 live births; under five mortality rate is 64 deaths per 1000 live births (world Bank). The Maternal Mortality Ratio is estimated at 420 per 100,000 live births (world health statistics Report, 2014).
Burden of Diseases:
Ethiopian Burden of diseases dominated by acute upper respiratory tract infection, followed by acute febrile illness, pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria. Pneumonia, Diarrhea, Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infection, Acute Febrile Illness and Malaria accounts for 64% under five morbidity.
Health Service Coverage and Utilization:
Availability, accessibility, equity, efficiency and quality of health services depend on the distribution, functionality and quality of infrastructure. In the past two decades remarkable progress has been made in improving access to primary health care units and hospitals.
Cumulative number of health posts reached 16,048 in 2005 EFY and 16,251 in 2006 EFY from 14,192 in 2002 EFY. Health post population ratio reached from 1:5,630 in 2002 to 1: 5,416.
Cumulative number of functional health centers increased to 3335 by the end of EFY 2006, accordingly Health center population ratio has shown showed significant improvement and reached 1 :26,390 by the end of EFY 2006. The number of hospitals reached 156 by the end of EFY 2006 from that of 116 in 2002; Hospital population ration is estimated at 1:586,740
The overall level of health service coverage reached 100%. Per capita outpatient department (OPD) visits were provided with an average of 0.35 OPD visit per person per year;
Health System Financing
One of the main challenges hampering health care access and quality is the lack of resources. To address this challenge and hence to mobilize adequate resources for the health sector, different resource mobilization activities have been implemented, including: (i) revenue retention by health facilities for quality improvement;
- Implementation of fee waiver system for enhanced equity;
- Establishment of private wings and outsourcing for better efficiency; and
- pilot and implementation of community based and social insurance schemes for improved financial access to health services, avoiding payment at the point of care delivery.
Per capita health expenditure increased from USD 16.1 per capita in 2007/08 to USD 24.5 in 2013 (World Bank).
Total public expenditure has reached 61% of total health expenditure by the end of 2005 EFY (same source as above). The government health budget has increased from 4.1% of GDP to 5.1% in the year 2005 EFY(World Bank).
Human Resource for Health:
Human resource is one of the key components of the health systems. Many efforts have been made to fulfill the health manpower need of the sector. Accordingly, the lower (HEWs) and medium (Nurses, Environmental Health, Laboratory and pharmacy professionals) level professional needs have been fulfilled to the level that the WHO standard for List developing countries.
The number of physicians increased to 4197 from that of 1421 in 2002. The actual progress shows that the physicians' population ratio reached 1: 20,970 by the end of 2006 compared to 1:37,996 in 2002.
Public Private Partnership
The government has sought to increase the involvement of the private sector (both for profit and non-profit) in the delivery of health services. Today practically all drug vendors and drug stores are privately owned as more than 70 percent pharmacies. The role of private health facilities is growing particularly in urban areas. There are also 4033 NGO clinics and 63 hospitals operating throughout the country.